Armorial History

history page banner e 4Since Carruthers were first recorded in the 1200’s they have been a well known and respected family, originating in the area of Carruthers in Annandale, Dumfrieshire.

Their history is noted elsewhere but here is a different viewpoint through the Armorial History of the Carruthers Clan, from the early Mouswald (Carruthers of Carruthers) arms through to the demise of the House of Mouswald itself, then only the House of Holmains to the present day.
Carruthers of Carruthers & Mouswald 
According to four mediæval armorials, the earliest recorded arms of the Carruthers family were those of Carruthers of Mouswald who bore a golden shield with two black (or in one instance blue) engrailed chevrons.

It is likely that these arms were borne by the head of the name from as early as the 13th century when shields of arms began being used by members of the landowning classes. Some of these armigers may have had their arms painted upon their shields (if they had such hardware) and the wealthier would have had them carved on to seal matrixes or seal rings.

Only the great peers had crests and other external ornament as part of the coats of arms but one suspects that the Carruthers were of more modest means being a medium sized family on one of the hardest fought-over borders in Christendom. The arms devised for the Carruthers by the mediæval heralds bore a striking similarity to the arms of another family of the Southwest, the MacClellans whose shield was also gold but with plain black chevrons.

The blue chevroned armorial was recorded in blazon by William Pont and it was possibly a blazoning error by the author. Due to the lack of heraldic regulation in those days several members of the same family might have borne the same shield which could easily lead to confusion on the battlefield,  however one suspects at the time one Carruthers was just as worthy as another Carruthers in the fray, so identity was not a problem.

The Mediaeval Arms of Carruthers of Mouswald
ARMS OF CARRUTHERS SETS 2
Heraldic colours or tinctures are know by their ancient French names thus gold is Or, black is Sable and blue is Azure. Gold and silver (Argent) are metals and the other common colours are red (Gules) and green (Vert). The edges of the chevrons are ornamentally drawn in a pattern know in heraldry as ‘engrailed’ 
Although ‘of the Mouswald’ line, the 16th century celebrated border knight Sir Simon Carruthers did not use these patronymic arms but is recorded in several armorials as using a red shield with a plain chevron between three fleurs-de-lis, the charges variously in gold or silver. Such arms must have brought him into dispute with the myriad of Broun and Browne families who bore similar, if not identical arms. Simon was the chief of the Carruthers family and used the territorial designation ‘of Mouswald’ so it is unsure why he did not use the ancient Mouswald arms. Sir Simon fell during a border raid in 1548 leaving no sons. His two daughters immediately fell under the influence of the all powerful Douglas family and the chiefdom passed quick through several close relations who were pressured by the Douglases into signing over the Mouswald lands. Thus fell the line of ancient Carruthers chiefs and the chiefdom of the Carruthers went eventually to the cadet branch of Holmains.
The Arms of Sir Simon Carruthers of Mouswald
ARMS OF CARRUTHERS SETS 3Five ancient armorials record the arms of Simon Carruthers, two favour gold charges and two favour silver charges. The fifth records a silver chevron with golden fleurs-de-lis. The shield to the left bears the same arms as those of the Brouns of Carsluith the head of which house was the powerful Gilbert Broun, Abbot of Sweetheart Abbey
Carruthers of Holmains
During the ninety years following the death of Sir Simon Carruthers, the new chiefly line of Holmains saw some rationalising of their arms as Simon had been using the same arms as those of the Brouns of Carsluith and Coulston, whose were principles of that name. Holmains appear to have had the arms of Sir Simon and the ancient arms of Mouswald combined to make a new armorial with a red field charged with two engrailed chevrons between three fleurs-de-lis, the charges all in gold. In the language of the heraldic blazon; Gules two chevrons engrailed between three fleurs-de-lis Or.

The heraldic turmoil of some five centuries was brought to order with passing of what is known as the Lyon Act of 1672 which required that the Scottish King of Arms, the Lord Lyon, and his heralds keep a permanent ‘Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland’. The heralds were given a year to record in the new register all arms of those entitled to bear arms and to grant or matriculate new arms to those found “virtuous and well deserving”. John Carruthers 9th of Holmains recorded in the Register these arms which are now the principal and chiefly arms of the name Carruthers.
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Arms of Holmains
​Early in the seventeenth century, armigerous families began to adopt external ornamentation to enhance their arms. Shields were no long used in battle but a shield of arms could be made a more attractive form of identity if it was depicted with certain ornament. A helmet was added from which flowed the mantling, then always red lined with white silk and to the top of the helmets on wreaths of the liveries (the principle metal and colour of the arms) were attached fanciful crests as worn by the great knights of yore in tournaments, a sport which in truth, little bothered Scotland!

The Holmains were almost certainly the first Carruthers to have a crest on their arms and were recorded in 1672 with a ‘Seraphim volant Proper’. Seraphim were six winged angels who sat beside God’s throne and acted as His protectors. It is uncertain that heralds and the heraldic painters of the time knew the strange morphology of such heavenly creatures and seemingly drew winged cherub heads as the crest instead. ‘Volant’ means flying, so these ‘angels’ with their six wings are supposedly flying and should therefore have their wings extended as in flight. ‘Proper’ refers to the colouring of said angels which means the colouring is true to life.
iu-1_1_orig.jpgWe have the prophet Isaiah to thank for his vision of heaven and the seraphim quoted in the Bible; “Above him were seraphs, each with six wings: With two wings they covered their faces, with two they covered their feet, and with two they were flying.” Such creatures were certainly painted on the wall of churches throughout the British Isles until the reformation blotted them out and their form was lost to post-reformation painters. It will be noted that seraphim are mostly depicted with pinkish-orange wings with golden halos. However, in modern western society, most all heavenly creatures are depicted in glowing, clean white.
Above; Mediæval Seraphim seated beside God protecting Him in Heaven with the Holy Ghost flying overhead ​and below; a contemporary seraphim from an Eastern Orthodox church.
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Serephim Proper
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It is doubtful that the Holmain armigers ever used a true Seraphim as a crest. In 1672 in the Register, there were no illustration and the arms are recorded only in blazon but John Carruthers would have been given a ‘receipt’ with an simple drawing on it so those who could not read a blazon could copy it. One suspects the engraver who made John Carruthers’ bookplate was indifferent to the supposed appearance of the seraphim and produced a winged cherub’s head crest, as can be seen on the right.

The male line of the Holmains failed early in the nineteenth century with the death of the twelfth laird leaving the house with several surviving daughters. A younger sister set up a trust in 1836 for the benefit of a list of heirs, namely her nephews, sons by her older sisters, whereby, in order of succession, they could benefit financially from the trust if they would change their surname to Carruthers and matriculate the Holmains arms. The first to take advantage of this in 1854 was Major John Peter Wade of the Honourable East India Company Service. He took the additional surname as Carruthers-Wade and matriculated arms at the Lyon Court quartering Wade arms in the first and fourth quarters and the undifferenced Carruthers of Holmains arms in second and third.

I am not sure that in hindsight that this is what was intended when the trust was set up as it appears the intention was to preserve the chiefship in the immediate family and by retaining the Wade surname the good Major eliminated himself from becoming the chief because he had a different surname. However, on the 19th of August 2019, after deliberation of the evidence presented to him, the Lord Lyon confirmed; Dr S. Peter Carruthers of Holmains, Chief of the Name and Arms of Carruthers, thus bringing Carruthers from armigerous status to that of a legally recognised ‘ Noble Incorporation’ and thus a recognised clan.

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​However, Major Carruthers Wade died without issue in 1873 and the line of succession passed to his cousin, the Reverend William Mitchell. He to changed his name by adding Carruthers to become the Reverend William Mitchell-Carruthers. Subsequently he too matriculated but with the Carruthers coat in the first and fourth and a newly devised Mitchell quartering in second and third.

Reverend Mitchell-Carruthers also missed the mark as far as the chiefship would be regarded today but he produced a thriving family with a number of sons who might benefit from the trust. Oddly, the Lyon King of Arms matriculated his arms with a differenced Holmains quartering with chevronels rather than chevrons. The chevronel is a lesser chevron thus narrower, which is good for heraldic artists as it allow more space on the shield for bigger fleurs-de-lis but is none the less a difference that the Reverend William did not need to have.

Today, succession to a clan chiefdom through the female line is commonplace but in the nineteenth century it was still a new idea and the rules had not been defined or tested. Several clans had chiefs using double, triple and even quadruple barrelled surnames, the succession having moved several times through female lines. As a result the arms of these multi-surnamed chiefs became extremely complicated; often the represented clan armorial was not even in the principal position. Today chiefs are expected to use only the single surname and to matriculate the plain chiefly coat.

It is possible for a Mitchell-Carruthers of the line, either male or female, to make themselves eligible to become chief of Carruthers by dropping the Mitchell part of their surname and proving that they were the eligible heir to the chiefdom and showing that there are no better claimants in the field. They would then have to present their proofs to the Lyon King of Arms who if satisfied might matriculate the 1672 registered arms anew and the Carruthers would have a recognised chief of the name.

Carruthers of Isle

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When the new Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland was begun in 1672, a James Carruthers who was the Steward Deputy and Factor (land agent) to the Earl of Annandale, recorded his arms. They were the same as those of John Carruthers of Holmains but all within a bordure Argent (a silver border). This would seems to indicate that James was very closely related to John, possibly a younger brother, at worst a cousin. He also made small differences to his crest by choosing a standing seraphim rather than flying and he chose ‘Paratus et Fidelis’ for his motto, thus; prepared and faithful rather than, prompt and faithful. James’s lineage does not seem to have survived.
Carruthers of Dormont
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When Major Francis John Carruthers of Dormont, late of the Kings Own Scottish Borderers, decided to matriculate arms in 1913, fully eleven generations of his family had lived at Dormont since his ancestor, William Carruthers, second son of John Carruthers 5th of Holmains had obtained a charter from his father to the lands of Carsophland in 1553. Carsophland later expanded to include Dormont and when Major Francis retired from the army and he collected together the charters and records of the estate to present to the Lyon, King of Arms with his petition to matriculate the ancient arms of his ancestor. Of course, the Register had not existed until 1672 when Holmains registered but his arms were assumed to have existed in the sixteenth century when in all reality the Holmainses were probably still deciding whether to use the ancient Mouswald arms or those of Sir Simon Carruthers who they were succeeding. However, the Lord Lyon, Sir Francis Grant matriculated arms for Major Carruthers with differences of chevronels and a bordure Or (golden border).

​These arms were painted on the major’s Letters Patent by the great heraldic painter A. G. Law Sampson with probably the first ‘accurate’ depiction of a seraphim crest ever to grace a Carruthers armorial. Dormont retained the original motto as is common in Scottish heraldry. The one thing Major Francis did not do however was to make a claim to the chiefship of the name which suggest he would have known that there were others who had a better claim to be chief.

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In November 1965, arms were matriculated by the Reverend Arthur Stanley Carruthers. He had shown that he was a cadet of the family of Carruthers of Dormont, itself having descended from the second son of John Carruthers, 5th of Holmains. The matriculated arms are contained within a Stodart style border to indicate the position of Arthur Carruthers within the family; the border is divided into two parts and charged twice to show the complexity of the relationship with the Dormont line. The shield is ensigned with the black hat with a pair of single tassels which may be used by a churchmen in place of a crest. Again the traditional Carruthers motto was retained.

The Stodart system of bordures was devised at the turn of the nineteenth century to provide a consistent method of differencing arms within a family where there were many armigers matriculations. However, the system has its drawbacks and can get very complicated ending in some quite unattractive armorials. The Reverend Arthur seems to have got off quite lightly with his border parted per pale Or and Azure and charged with a martlet and crescent.

Dr George Carruthers FSA Scot

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In 2016, Dr George Carruthers FSA Scot, Convenor of the Clan Society, a native of Dunfermline in Fife started the process of petitioning for a new Grant of Arms which were duly granted early in 2017. Granted arms for a particular surname have to be based on the chiefly arms but have two significant differences from the chiefly coat; in George’s case this would be the replacement of the bottom fleur-de-lis with a pheon (an arrow or spear head) and the less noticeable difference of chevronels as opposed to chevrons. He has kept to the angelic theme of Carruthers crests choosing ‘the Archangel St Michael pinning the beast’ (possibly not so angelic). He has also chosen a more personal motto; Non Sto Solus (I do not stand alone).

Dr George Carruthers was only the seventh Carruthers to officially register arms in Scotland. Any Carruthers, Scottish born or resident, may petition for Scottish arms through the Court of the Lord Lyon. Such petitioners should of course be ‘virtuous and well deserving’ and will have to meet certain residency criteria. Carruthers within and outwith Scotland who can prove their descent from one of the armigerous Carruthers families can petition for a matriculation of an ancestor’s arms with ‘congruent differences’ which means they would have a shield with a coloured border or additional or slightly different charges. Those who cannot prove descent from one of the armigerous families can petition for a new grant of arms but, like George above, their new arms would be based on the chiefly arms of Holmains. Acquiring arms through the Court of the Lord Lyon is not hugely expensive and certainly worth the effort of investigation.

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All the coats of arms in these pages are the sole property of the armigers to whom they were granted, matriculated or inherited and in the cases where there is no known armiger, the arms are assumed to have reverted to the crown. In Scotland arms are personal property and protected under law by the Lyon Act of 1672. To assume them, usurp them or claim them as your own is unlawful and an individual may not properly display them without the expressed consent of armiger/owner. However, heraldic law is not vindictive and displays of arms are to be encouraged for their beauty and for educational purposes.

Scottish heraldry is not solely for men. Scotland has long granted and matriculated arms for women in their own right. Also an armiger’s wife may display her husband’s arms on a cartouche, an armiger’s daughter is entitled to use her father’s arms on either an oval or lozenge-shaped cartouche throughout her life.

Scots take great pride in their heritage, their history, tartans and heraldry. Recent years have seen a great many folk petitioning for personal arms, and all who are in right of such arms should make opportunities to show, wear and display their ensigns armorial. There is no snobbery in armoury as the socially anxious may fear. Armoury is not about pretence. It is primarily about identity. To the heraldically literate it shows who you are. It shows continuity from the past, from your forebears. It shows belonging, being part of a family and a name and most especially, it is colour. It is a celebration of the individual and the family for all to enjoy.

“Heraldry is the fury of history made wise and formal: from its hands we take at last the wholesome images—the heart’s bread—that our ancestors sowed for us in passion and blindness”
                                                                                                                George Mackay Brown
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The Clansman’s badge is given freely to the Carruthers clan and family in the hope that it will be made real and cast in metal.

GC BADGE ARTWORK Chosen Logo-10Clan Carruthers is officially represented by the Clan Carruthers Society International (CCSI), which was founded in January 2017 and is officially recognised by the Chief of Carruthers as representing the worldwide Carruthers family. It is non-commercial, apolitical and non-partisan and is open to any member of the international Carruthers family and derivatives of that name. The Society is based in the United Kingdom, but is represented by an international Executive Council.

www.clancarrutherssociety.org